VCAP-ICD – Objective 1.1

Objective 1.1 – Create a Conceptual Design Based on Business Requirements

Skills and Abilities 

  • Distinguish between virtualization, automation and cloud computing.
  • Distinguish between private, public, hybrid and community cloud computing.
  • Analyze a customer use case to determine how cloud computing can satisfy customerrequirements.
  • Given a customer use case, determine the appropriate cloud computing model.

Distinguish between virtualization, automation and cloud computing.

First paragraph taken from the VCAT 3.1 Toolkit (Service Definitions PDF):

Virtualization has reduced costs and increased server efficiency, often dramatically, but it does not, by itself, deliver the level of automation and control required to achieve the efficiencies or agility associated with cloud computing. Cloud computing offers the opportunity to further improve cost efficiency, quality of service, and business agility. It enables IT to support a wide range of changing business objectives, from deployment of new tools, products, and services to expansion into new markets. Cloud computing transforms IT from a cost center into a service provider.


Essentially allows us to consolidate and become much more efficient with the resources we have. Instead of multiple physical servers we can now use 1 physical server to host multiple workloads. I still think of virtualization as a technology which helps to enable the Cloud framework. At the end of the day, if you virtualized 100% of your apps, this does not mean you have a Cloud, only that you are 100% virtualized, but no doubt have saved your company a lot of money.


Automation helps us to do things better by making us more efficient. Here the emphasis is on scripting, workflow design, configuration management tools, and any other methods to reduce the amount of human touch to make things work. It is an essential skill required to enable any serious Cloud delivery.

Cloud Computing: 

Key Terms: Business Agility, Quality, Cost efficiency

Automation and Virtualization help us get there. Business Agility is key, as by fully embracing a cloud model it enables IT to respond quickly to changing business demands. As VMware states above, this transforms IT from a cost center, into a service provider. The way our customers consume resources is radically changed when we use a cloud model.

Again keep in mind, if you just virtualized your environments and then put in automation, you are efficient, but you haven’t changed the entire process.

Distinguish between private, public, hybrid and community cloud computing.  

Taken from the VCAT 3.1 Toolkit (Service Definitions PDF): 

The following are the commonly accepted definitions for cloud computing deployment models:

  • Private vCloud – The vCloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization and can be managed by the organization or a third party. The infrastructure can be located on-premises or off- premises.
  • Public vCloud – The vCloud infrastructure is made available to the general public or to a large industry group and is owned by an organization that sells vCloud services.
  • Hybrid vCloud – The vCloud infrastructure is a composite of two or more vCloud instances (private and public) that remain unique entities but are bound together by standardized technology. This enables data and application portability, for example, cloud bursting for load balancing between vCloud instances. With a hybrid vCloud, an organization gets the advantages of both, with the ability to burst into the public vCloud when needed while maintaining critical assets on-premises.
  • Community vCloud – The vCloud infrastructure is shared by several organizations and supports a specific community that has shared concerns, such as mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations. It can be managed by the organizations or a third party, and can be located on-premises or off-premises.

At this time I think it is also worth mentioning the 3 service models.

  • Software as a Service (SaaS) – Business-focused services are presented directly to the consumer from a service catalog.
  • Platform as a Service (PaaS) – Technology-focused services are presented for application development and deployment to application developers from a service catalog.
  • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) – Infrastructure containers are presented to consumers to provide agility, automation, and delivery of components.

Analyze a customer use case to determine how cloud computing can satisfy customer requirements.

Given a customer use case, determine the appropriate cloud computing model.

These last 2 objectives are covered very well in the Service Definitions PDF which lists a number of use case examples. I’m going to revisit this section after I finish going through all the objectives to see what examples I have found.


Cloud thoughts…and Operations 101

Cloud/VCAP-ICD Studying

My usual mentality is to fully understand the technology before trying to get others to buy in on the ideas. This way I know if it is vendor’s lying, or whether or not a suite like vCloud Director can actually make a lasting impact on the business.

So my focus over the next few months is going to be ensuring I know enough about how something like vCloud Director can work in practice. I will be developing sample policies and procedures to further enhance my understanding of what this might actually look like in practice. I will start this by going through the VCAP-ICD Exam Blueprint and working through every topic. You will see a new menu bar for VCAP-ICD very soon.

VMware is also releasing a new exam around governance, so it will be very interesting to see what extra material they bring to the table there.

For more information on the VCAP-ICD check out: 

Operations 101

One thing has become clear to me as I’ve been reading books on the subject…If you don’t have basic blocking and tackling right in a static environment, your cloud ideas are bound to fail.

So in addition to learning about Cloud and studying for my VCAP-ICD I will be documenting all the core essentials I believe need to be in place before going to Cloud, or in some cases may be solved by going to a Cloud type model.

So what then are the core essentials BEFORE starting on a cloud journey.

My experience working in an enterprise has taught me that attitudes to operations matter far more than the technologies which enable them.  I’ve had the pleasure of working with some people that really care about their environments, and others that just come to do the bare minimum.

Operations must work. We can go and read ITIL books etc. but what is the reality, and how does operations work for the day to day VMware Admin…How do we get to that well oiled machine, and what does it take to keep it there…?

As I begin this section I am going to be covering the following solutions as they relate to VMware Environments:

1. VM Monitoring

I have a lot of experience now with nWorks, vKernel, SCOM, vCOPs…I will be discussing the very quick and easy way I was able to reduce noise, get relevant tickets, and get lower level engineers able to take over support for our day to day activities. Keep it simple and don’t over complicate your monitoring.

2. Performance Troubleshooting/VM Environment Recovery

If we can’t free ourselves up from bridge calls where infrastructure has to be checked and rechecked for performance we can never work on the things we need to work on. How do we quickly and effectively deal with these situations.

3. Capacity Planning

Divided up between Compute and Storage…how do you ensure you have the capacity you need all the time? Again I have created very simple ideas which can be modified to work in any environment.

4. Inventory/Tagging

This is an area I’m working on right now…would love to hear how other people are doing this in their virtual environments.

5. Automation/Configuration Management

Automation skills, be it scripting, config management with puppet/sccm, orchestration tools, are essential not just to Cloud but I believe Operations.

Standards are so important here…you can’t automate or maintain configurations, if you don’t even have a set of documented standards for your environment.

The 3 main areas I will cover here are ESXi Host standards, vCenter Standards, and VM Standards.

6. Disaster Recovery/Bacups

This journey is only beginning…I’m looking forward to thinking through all the challenges here.

7. More to be determined..

In closing, I believe this still comes back to standards. Someone once told me “There’s a standard for everything, and everything has a standard” and this in itself really helps guide the thoughts for the above.